Wednesday , May 22 2019

Proposal Learning English Faster Chapter II

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 A Brief Explanation of Reading Skill
It is important to understand what is the reading process its self. The reading process separated in to two activities; First is reading for meaning and the second is reading aloud.
2.2 In this proposal, The arguments will fall into three categories: Intensity, Motivation and Authenticity.
Intensity
You need 1000s of phrases to speak English fluently. To be able to use thousands of phrases, you must read tens of thousands of phrases, because you will forget a lot of what you read.
If you just read when your teacher tells you to (e.g. 2 short articles per week in your English class), you are not going to make any progress. At such a rate, even if you learn something one week, you will forget it next week. You need to read, on average, at least a few pages per day. For this, you need to take charge of your learning — get some books and start reading on your own.
If you don’t believe that reading on your own will dramatically change your English, consider this: In a week, a typical intermediate English learner who attends 4 hours of English classes learns maybe 5 new words or phrases from reading 2 pages in English plus another 5 from other sources (listening, conversation with teacher). Sure, they write down more than this, but after a week they remember less than 50% of the knowledge.
If you read 20 pages per week (which is only 3 per day), you will learn, mathematically, about 50 new words or phrases per week. If you read 40 pages per week (6 per day), you will learn 100 new words or phrases per week.
Motivation


You need to start reading on your own not just because it is effective, but also because it is so motivating. When you read on your own, you read something you chose yourself, something you really find interesting, rather than something your teacher told you to read. As a result, you read much more willingly and spend more time on it.
If you choose texts which are interesting and fun (Harry Potter, an article about computers, sports news, movie reviews, e-mail messages from friends, an Internet forum on relationships — whatever fits your bill), reading will not be something you have to do. It will be something you want to do. Once you try it, you will probably be thankful that you can understand English and read such great stuff!
Furthermore, when you read something that matters to you, you can remember much more. For example, if you read an article your teacher gave you, you want to read it quickly and be done with it. But if you read the lyrics of a new song by your favorite band, you’re much more likely to repeat them to yourself and keep them in your memory — together with all the grammar and vocabulary.
A lot of people associate English with unpleasant things. For example, they think “I must learn English or else I won’t find a job” or “I must learn English or I won’t get a passing grade”. In their minds, studying English is something they have to do, even though they would rather not do it — just like they would rather not have to go to school or work.
Authenticity
I believe it’s important to learn from real American and British sources instead of resources prepared especially for English learners. If you see a phrase in a book or in a blog, you know it’s really used in the English-speaking world.
By contrast, texts used in English classes often attempt to teach “proper” English, stripped of any informal expressions, such as crap, sucks or stuff. Authors of such texts probably disapprove of such phrases and believe that learners don’t need them. But the fact is that most learners would choose relaxed, natural language — the language of regular educated Americans and Britons — over the stuffy standards of the proper-speaking “elite”. Which is another reason why learners should go beyond English classes and start reading “real-life English” on their own
2..3 Read English Story while improve English Skill
Reading for content
Normally, when reading a text, people use a strategy that I call “reading for content”. The goal of this strategy is to get the main idea of the text as quickly as possible and with as little effort as possible. To accomplish this goal, your brain will try to read as few words as possible and spend only a fraction of a second on each word.
For example, when reading the following passage, you don’t really see it like this:
Once when I was six years old I saw a magnificent picture in a book, called True Stories from Nature, about the primeval forest. It was a picture of a boa constrictor in the act of swallowing an animal. Here is a copy of the drawing. In the book it said: “Boa constrictors swallow their prey whole, without chewing it. After that they are not able to move, and they sleep through the six months that they need for digestion.”
I pondered deeply, then, over the adventures of the jungle. And after some work with a colored pencil I succeeded in making my first drawing.
To your brain, it looks more or less like this:
Once when I was six years old I saw a magnificent picture in a book, called True Stories from Nature, about the primeval forest. It was a picture of a boa constrictor in the act of swallowing an animal. Here is a copy of the drawing. In the book it said: “Boa constrictors swallow their prey whole, without chewing it. After that they are not able to move, and they sleep through the six months that they need for digestion.”
I pondered deeply, then, over the adventures of the jungle. And after some work with a colored pencil I succeeded in making my first drawing.
Here are some characteristics of “reading for content”:
· Not seeing “grammar words” like a, the, in, of, through, that. The eye only stops at content words (main nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs).
· Not seeing word forms: Was it look or looked? Has looked or had looked?
· Not noticing the exact spelling. It is well known that the brain recognizes whole words — it does not analyze them letter by letter. Native speakers see the word piece all the time, but many of them still misspell it as peice, because the two spellings have similar shapes.
· Ignoring difficult words that are not essential to understanding the meaning (here: primeval, constrictor). Who has the time to use a dictionary?
An extreme example of “word blindness” is the rather well-known puzzle where you’re asked to count how many times the letter F occurs in the following passage:
FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.
Six times. The word of, being a grammar word, is not noticed by most people.
Reading for content is a great, time-saving way to extract information from printed sources. The problem is that you may not need the grammar words to understand a text, but you do need them to produce a text. So if you don’t pay attention to things like articles and prepositions, you won’t be able to use them correctly in your own sentences.
For example, here is a sentence from the opening paragraph of this article. Most learners (except those who are proficient in English grammar or extremely observant) will probably find it difficult to fill in the blanks:
To accomplish this goal, your brain will try to read as ___ words as possible and spend only a fraction of ___ second ___ each word.
The above explains why some learners can read a 300-page book and still have problems with relatively basic grammar. It also explains why articles and prepositions are among the hardest aspects of English to learn. The conclusion for the English learner is that if you want to improve your production (output) skills, you will have to train yourself to notice grammar words.
Here’s an illuminating passage :
I believe that seeing correct and typical English sentences helps a lot to learn how to use English properly. It is also important to read and read again every structure that is new to you, so that you can remember them. If you only read the book without taking any pause to think carefully about the “new” sentences, you will hardly remember any of them.
I’ve read all Harry Potter books straight myself, and when I opened them again, I realised I had viewed loads and loads of useful structures whithout remembering them – which was such a shame! I’m reading The Full Monty (Penguin Readers collection) using the “pause and think” method at present. Now after a few days of daily reading, when I take a look at an English text, many structures are familiar to me – “hey, I remember reading this one in The Full Monty!”.
Therefore, I believe this method is efficient and I would advise it to all learners.
Sometimes, we don’t realise how wealthy a single book can be – loads to learn just in one of them.

Pause and think

I agree with Maya l’abeille about the “pause and think” method. Here’s the process that I recommend for dealing with sentences in texts:
  1. Stop at interesting (not obvious) things: a new word, how a word was used, a grammatical structure, a preposition, an article, a conjunction, the order of words, etc. For example, spend a while to think about the fact that the sentence contains the preposition at, and not on. Perhaps the sentence uses the present perfect tense where you would have expected the past simple. Perhaps the word order is different than in your first language.
  2. If the sentence contains a useful phrase, ask yourself: Could you produce a similar phrase yourself? Would you use the right tenses, articles and prepositions? Would you use the right word order? If you’re not sure, practice saying a similar phrase aloud or in your mind. The idea is to move the phrase to your “active vocabulary”.
  3. If necessary, or if you feel like it, use your dictionary to find definitions of words in the sentence and get more example sentences. This will help enrich your “feel” of the word.
If you don’t like to stop reading, you can write down all the interesting sentences, or you can underline them in the book with a pencil. This way, you can handle these sentences later.
Another important piece of advice is that you don’t have to use the above strategy all the time. Reading in this mode can be quite exhausting, so don’t do it when you’re tired after a long reading session. Also, do not try to give equal attention to every sentence. Some sentences in books (e.g. long poetic descriptions) do not contain phrases or structures that are useful for building your own sentences. Some characters in books use weird slang expressions which aren’t very useful either.
Finally, the “pause and think” technique will not always make you remember the exact way to say something. But perhaps you’ll remember that this particular type of sentence is “weird” or “difficult” in English. If you remember that, it will at least make you stop before you write that sentence, and look it up instead of making a careless mistake.

An example

I’ll now give you a short demonstration of the “pause and think” method. Here are two English sentences and the thoughts I got when reading them:
Former President Jimmy Carter will visit Venezuela next week to mediate talks between the government and its opposition, which have been locked in a power struggle since a failed coup.
· “Former President” — not “The former President”, so I guess we say “President Carter” and not “The President Carter”, even though we say “The President will do something” when we don’t mention his name.
· “to mediate talks” — not “to mediate in the talks” or something like that. I wonder if that would be OK, too…
· “power struggle” — I think I’ve seen this phrase before.
· “since a failed coup” — so I can say “He’s been paralyzed since an accident” (preposition use), not only “He’s been paralyzed since an accident happened” (conjunction use).
· “since a failed coup” — not “since the failed coup”. The author does not assume we know about the coup.
· “coup” — hey, I know this is pronounced [ku:]!
Jennifer McCoy, of the Atlanta-based Carter Center, told reporters Saturday that Carter may be able to help break the political deadlock when he visits beginning July 6.
· “Jennifer McCoy of the Carter Center” — not “Jennifer McCoy from the Carter Center” (in Polish I would say from). So we’d say “John Brown of IBM”, for example.
· “Atlanta-based” — another way of saying “based in Atlanta”. Guess I could say I’m a “Wroclaw-based webmaster”.
· “told reporters Saturday” not “on Saturday” — seems we can skip the “on” sometimes. “I met her Friday” would probably work as well as “I met her on Friday”.
· “told that Carter may be able” — not “told that Carter might be able” — lack of reported (indirect) speech. And my English teacher taught me to say things like “She said she might stay” (not “She said she may stay”).
· “to help break the deadlock” — It looks like help can be used without an object (it does not say “to help Venezuelans break the deadlock”), and without to (it does not say “help to break the deadlock”). This is different from some other verbs like force (we cannot say “The President will force break the deadlock”, we must say “The President will force Venezuelans to break the deadlock.”).
· “when he visits” — not “when he will visit”, even though it will be in the future. I don’t think I have ever seen will used in such a sentence.
· “to visit beginning July 6” — interesting structure — I would say “to visit on July 6”, but here beginning replaces on. This may be the first time that I’ve seen this phrase. It may be some sort of news jargon.

Reading everywhere

If you think you don’t have time to read, try to carry a book with you everywhere you go. That way, you can read when you’re waiting in line, waiting for a bus, or even when walking (but make sure you don’t walk into other people or vehicles).

credit goes to Antimoon.com
Happy reading

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